Frequently Asked Questions¶
Getting Machine Learning models into production is hard. Data Scientists are not experts in building production services and DevOps best practices. The trained models produced by a Data Science team are hard to test and hard to deploy. This often leads us to a time consuming and error-prone workflow, where a pickled model or weights file is handed over to a software engineering team.
BentoML is an end-to-end solution for model serving, making it possible for Data Science teams to build production-ready model serving endpoints, with common DevOps best practices and performance optimizations baked in.
How does BentoML compare to Tensorflow-serving?¶
Tensorflow-serving only supports Tensorflow framework at the moment, while BentoML has multi-framework support, works with Tensorflow, PyTorch, Scikit-Learn, XGBoost, FastAI, and more;
Tensorflow loads the model in tf.SavedModel format, so all the graphs and computations must be compiled into the SavedModel. BentoML keeps the Python runtime in serving time, making it possible to do pre-processing and post-processing in serving endpoints.
Both Tensorflow-serving and BentoML provides support for adaptive micro-batching, related benchmarks can be found here https://github.com/bentoml/BentoML/tree/master/benchmark
How does BentoML compare to Clipper?¶
BentoML is an end-to-end model serving solution. Besides online API model serving, BentoML also provides model packaging, model management, offline batch serving and deployment automation features. Clipper focuses on the online API serving system.
Both BentoML and Clipper provides micro-batching capability. BentoML’s implementation is highly inspired by the paper: Clipper: A Low-Latency Online Prediction Serving System https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/nsdi17/nsdi17-crankshaw.pdf
The main difference is that BentoML provides micro-batching at the instance level while Clipper does it at a cluster level. Users can deploy BentoML API server containers in a more flexible way, while Clipper requires all prediction requests being routed to its master node.
BentoML works great with Clipper, users can deploy BentoML packaged models to their Clipper cluster and benefit from both frameworks: https://docs.bentoml.org/en/latest/deployment/clipper.html
How does BentoML compare to AWS SageMaker?¶
When not using the built-in algorithms, model deployment on SageMaker requires users to build their API server with Flask and containerize the flask app by themselves
BentoML provides a high-performance API server for users without the need for lower-level web server development work
BentoML packaged model can be easily deployed to SageMaker serving: https://docs.bentoml.org/en/latest/deployment/aws_sagemaker.html
How does BentoML compare to MLFlow?¶
MLFlow provides components that work great for experimentation management, ML project management. BentoML only focuses on serving and deploying trained models. You can, in fact, serve models logged in MLFlow experimentation with BentoML (we are working on related documentation)
Both BentoML and MLFlow can expose a trained model as a REST API server, but there are a few main differences:
In our benchmark testing, the BentoML API server is roughly 3-10x better performance compared to MLFlow’s API server, and over 50x in some extreme cases: https://github.com/bentoml/BentoML/tree/master/benchmark
BentoML server is able to handle high-volume prediction requests without crashing while the MLFlow API server is very unstable in that case.
MLFlow focuses on loading and running a model, while BentoML provides an abstraction to build a prediction service, which includes the necessary pre-processing and post-processing logic in addition to the model itself
BentoML is more feature-rich in terms of serving, it supports many essential model serving features that are missing in MLFlow, including multi-model inference, API server dockerization, built-in Prometheus metrics endpoint, Swagger/OpenAPI endpoint for API client library generation, serverless endpoint deployment, prediction/feedback logging and many more
MLFlow API server requires the user to also use MLFlow’s own “MLFlow Project” framework, while BentoML works with any model development and model training workflow - users can use BentoML with MLFlow, Kubeflow, Floydhub, AWS SageMaker, local jupyter notebook, etc
Does BentoML do horizontal scaling?¶
BentoML itself does not handle horizontal scaling, but it produces API server docker container images that can be easily scaled horizontally with container orchestration frameworks such as Kubernetes and Mesos.
BentoML also allows users to deploy models to cloud platforms such as AWS Lambda, AWS ECS and Google Cloud Run, where horizontal scaling can be achieved.
We are also working on an opinionated end-to-end deployment solution on Kubernetes for BentoML. We plan to provide support for horizontal scaling, along with features such as blue-green-deployment, auto-scaling, logging and monitoring integration, etc.
How does BentoML compare with Cortex?¶
Cortex provides CLI tools for creating and managing a Kubernetes cluster on AWS, but does not provide too much help in model packaging and model serving.
BentoML focuses on model serving specific problems. It leaves the cluster management part to the tools that do it really well (such as Kops, Rancher, AWS EKS, Google K8s Engine etc) and focuses instead on managing model serving workloads on an existing K8s cluster.
We are working on an opinionated end-to-end deployment solution on Kubernetes for BentoML. We plan to provide support for horizontal scaling, blue-green-deployment, auto-scaling, logging and monitoring integration, etc.
How does BentoML compare to Seldon?¶
Seldon is a model orchestration framework: only after you’ve built a model API server and containerize it with docker, Seldon helps scheduling the model containers on a Kubernetes cluster.
Seldon does provide pre-built containers that can load and run a scikit-learn or xgboost saved model, but this approach has lots of limitations. You can use BentoML as a replacement for that, which gives you better performance and more flexibility.
Is there a plan for R support?¶
Yes, R support is on our roadmap. The original design of BentoML’s architecture did consider multi-language support.
It is also possible to invoke R by customizing a Python model artifact class in BentoML, we are working on a tutorial for that.